Syllabus query

Academic Year/course: 2016/17

8058 - Master in Political Philosophy

32258 - Democracy and Political Liberalism: Theoretical and Institutional Features

Teaching Guide Information

Academic Course:
Academic Center:
805 - Masters Centre of the Department of Political and Social Sciences
8058 - Master in Political Philosophy
32258 - Democracy and Political Liberalism: Theoretical and Institutional Features
Teaching languages:
Theory: Group 1: Pending
Lluis Ferran Requejo Coll
Teaching Period:
First Quarter


This subject deals with the analysis of the main theories and institutions of democracy and political liberalism, focusing specially on the current debates on socioeconomic and cultural and national justice in diverse societies. The democracy of Ancient Greece and different conceptions of political liberalism and modern and contemporary democracy will be addressed from some key concepts of political legitimacy: equality, liberty, pluralism, justice, federalism, nationalism, citizenship, representation, and participation. Students will also analyse different ethical and functional legitimising approaches, political tensions and argumentative fallacies through the analysis of Ancient Greek’ and Shakespeare’s tragedies. Classical political theory, natural sciences, empirical comparative politics and history are the main approaches included in this subject.

Learning outcomes

At the end of the term, students must be familiar with the main concepts, historical experiences and normative and institutional references and challenges of present day liberal democracies. Students are also expected to have ability to write a research paper on the subject, focusing on current debates on theories of democracy, political liberalism, federalism, cultural/national pluralism or theories of justice. Oral presentations, ability of reasoning and critical discussion are expected in the development of this subject, as well as the ability to identify and develop new conceptual and analytical ideas in the field.


A general overview of the main institutions of Ancient and liberal democracy, as well as of the history of political liberalism (from Locke to Rawls and Taylor) and the basic elements of the current debate on justice, liberal democracy, federalism and cultural/national pluralism.


"In political and philosophical theories as well as in persons, success discloses faults and infirmities which failure might have concealed from observation”


                                                                                    J.Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 1859


“No doctrine which inspires a movement or a party has ever to my knowledge been refuted by argument –it expires as a result of changes in the world”


                                                                                    I.Berlin, To Nora Beloff, 1988                                




Session 1. Presentation


Presentation of the subject: aims, methodology and academic organisation


Research in political science and political theory. Human beings, between biology and culture. The magical pentagon.


Pluralism, democracy, political liberalism, socio-economic and cultural/national justice: introductory remarks


Comments on the bibliography



Readings: None



Session 2. Evolution, human beings and moral theories





De Waal 2005, chaps 2, 3 and 4 (power, sex, violence)

(For the completed references, see section 7 “General bibliography”)



M. Bekoff-J. Pierce, Wild Justice. The moral life of animals, The University of Chicago Press, 2009, chaps 5 and 6 (Justicia salvaje. La vida moral de los animals, Turner, Madrid, 2010)


Euripides, Antigone



Other recommended readings:


M.S. Gazzaniga, Who’s in charge, Ecco Books, 2011 (Quién manda aquí?, El libre albedrío y la ciencia del cerebro, Paidós, Barcelona, 2012)


L. Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex?, 1989 (¿Tiene sexo la mente?, Ed Cátedra, Medrid, 2004)


M.D. Hauser, Moral minds. How nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong, Harper Collins, New York, 2006 (La mente moral, Paidós, Barcelona, 2008)


J. Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel, The Fates of Human Societies, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, chaps 11, 13,14 (Armas, gérmenes y acero, Debate, Barcelona, 2006)



Session 3. The democracy of Ancient Greece (I)





Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book II, 35-46 (Pericles), Book V, 85-114 (Melian) (editions recommended: in English, The LOEB Classical Library; in Catalan, the Fundació Bernat Metge’s; in Spanish, the Gredos’ and Alianza’s)


Sartori, G, 1987: chaps 2 and 10


Euripides, Medea



Other recommended readings:


Requejo, F, 2008: chap 2-4


Dunn, J, 1995: chap 1-2


Plato, Protagoras; Republic (422e-427d, 437b ff, 514a, 518b-519d, (Gredos, Madrid 1981)


W.G.Forrest, The Emergence of Greek Democracy The character of Greek politics, 800-400 BC, 1978, chaps 6-9 (Los orígenes de la democracia griega, Akal, Barcelona 1988)


W.K.C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol III, Cambridge, CUP, 1969


R. Morkot, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece, Penguin Books 1996




Session 4. The democracy of Ancient Greece (II)





Isocrates, Areopagíticus, II, Harvard University Press 1982

(Discursos, vol II, Gredos, Madrid 1980)


Hansen 1991: chap 4


Shakespeare, Coriolanus



Other recommended readings:



Aristotle, Politics, 1279a, 1280b-1281a, 1282b-1283a, 1286b, 1293b, 1294a, 1323b, 1328b-1329a (Política, Centro de Estudios Constitucionales)


E. Hamilton, The Greek Way, Norton & Company 1930, chap 11 (El camino de los griegos, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Madrid 2002)


M.I.Finley, The Ancient Greeks, 1963 (Los griegos de la antigüedad, Labor, Barcelona 1992


R.K.Sinclair, Democracy and Participation in Athens, Cambridge University Press, 1988, chaps 1,5 (Democracia y participación en Atenas, Alianza, Madrid 1999)


R. Osborne (ed), Classical Greece 500-323 BC, Oxford University Press 2000 (La Grecia clásica, Crítica, Barcelona 2002)



Session 5. Liberal democracy (I)





Berlin I, “Two Concepts of Liberty” in Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford University Press 1969 ("Dos conceptos de libertad", Cuatro ensayos sobre la libertad, Alianza, Madrid 1988)


Madison J, The Federalist, n.10, Basil Blackwell 1987 (2nd ed) (El Federalista, Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics, 2009)


Shakespeare, Julius Caesar




Other recommended readings:


F. Requejo, “Refining Political Liberty and Democratic Liberalism in Nationally Diverse Democracies”,

in Renata Urtz (ed), Freedom and its Enemies. The Tragedy of Liberty, Eleven International Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2015: 151-170


F. Requejo, “Isaiah Berlin's value pluralism. Refining theory to improve democratic practice"

Catalan Social Sciences Review, IEC, 4, 2014: 51-56


J.Stuart Mill, Representative Government, chap 12 (several ed)


J.Stuart Mill, On "La democratie en Amérique" University of Toronto Press (Sobre la libertad y Comentarios a Tocqueville, Espasa Calpe, Madrid 1991)


H.F.Pitkin, The Concept of Representation, University of California Press, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 1972, chaps 4,5,7,8,9


B. Manin, The Principles of Representative Government, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge-New York-Melbourne 1997, chaps 2-5


J.A.Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Harper&Brothers, New York 1942, chaps 20-22 (Capitalismo, Socialismo y Democracia, Ed Folio, Barcelona 1984)


C.B.Macpherson, The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy, Oxford University Press 1976, chap 5 (La Democracia Liberal y su época, Alianza Madrid, 1981)


R.Dahl 1992: chap 20


Pettit Ph, 1999: chap 1: 35-75


Offe C - Preuss U, “Democratic institutions and moral resources” in D. Held (ed), Political Theory Today,  Polity Press, Cambridge 1991

("Instituciones democráticas y recursos morales", Isegoría 2, Madrid 1990)


Mª J Villaverde, La ilusión republicana, Tecnos, Madrid 2008







Session 6. Liberal democracy (II). John Rawls and contemporary theories of socio-economic justice.





Rawls J, "Fundamental ideas”, in Justice as Fairness. A Restatement (Erin Nelly edit), Harvard University Press, Cambridge-London 2001 (La Justicia como equidad. Una reformulación, Paidós, Barcelona-Buenos Aires-México 2002)


Gray J, “Liberal Toleration” in J. Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2000

(“Tolerancia liberal”, Las dos caras del liberalismo, Paidós, 2001)


Shakespeare, Macbeth



Other recommended readings:


F. Requejo-E. Gonzalo, Desigualtats en democràcia. Les teories de la justícia socio-econòmica en el segle XXI, Chap 4, Eumo, Vic 2009


J.Rawls, "Justice as Fairness” in A Theory of Justice, Oxford University Press 1971, chap 1 (Teoría de la Justicia, F.C.E. 1978)


J.Rawls, "The Law of Peoples", Critical Inquiry, n.20: 36-68, 1993


Ch.Larmore, "Political Liberalism", Political Theory, vol3:339-360, 1990


P.Neal, "Vulgar Liberalism", Political Theory, vol 21, n.4: 623-642, 1993



Session 7. Liberal democracy (III). Theories of cultural/national justice





Walzer W, "The communitarian critique of liberalism", Political Theory, vol 18, n 1: 6-23, 1990


Taylor Ch, Multiculturalism and "the Politics of Recognition", Princeton University Press, New Jersey 1992


Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice




Other recommended readings:



Requejo F, “Political Liberalism and Multinational Democracies” in Multinational Federalism and Value Pluralism, Routledge, London-New York 2005, chap 1


Requejo, F, “The crooked timber of liberal democracies is still too straight”, in N. Walker-B. Shaw-S. Tierney (eds), Europe’s Constitutional Mosaic, Hart Publishing,

Oxford, 2011: 231-249


F. Requejo, "Cultural pluralism, nationalism and federalism: A revision of democratic citizenship in plurinational states", European Journal of Political Research, 35, 1999: 255-286


W. Kymlicka, Multicultual Citizenship. A liberal theory of minority rights, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1995, chaps 3 and 6 (Ciudadania Multicultural, Paidós, Barcelona 1996)


Tully, J, “Introduction”, in A.Gagnon-J.Tully (eds), Multinational Democracies, Cambridge University Press, 2001

Taylor Ch, “Shared and Divergent Values” in Watts R – Brown D.M (eds), Options for a New Canada, University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1991: 53-76 (“Valores compartidos y divergentes”, in Fossas-Requejo 1999, chap 2)



Kymlicka W - Norman W (eds), “Citizenship in Culturally Diverse Societies: Issues, Contexts, Concepts”, in Kymlicka W-Norman W (eds) Citizenship in Diverse Societies, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2000


W. Norman, Negotiating Nationalism, Oxford University Press, 2006



Session 8. Liberal democracy (V). Federalism and democracy





Watts 1999: 1-20


Requejo F, “Federalism and Democracy. The Case of Minority Nations: a Federalist Deficit”, in M. Burgess - A. Gagnon (eds), Federal Democracies, Routledge, London 2010: 275-298


Shakespeare, King Lear



Other recommended readings:



J.Weber, “An Asymmetrical Constitution” in Reimagining Canada. Language, Culture, Community, and the Canadian Constitution, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Kingston&Montréal-London-Buffalo 1994: 285-307 (“Una constitución asimétrica”, in Fossas-Requejo (eds) 1999, cap 4)


D. Karmis-W. Norman (eds), “Introduction. The revival of federalism in normative political theory”, Theories of federalism. A Reader, Palgrave Macmillan 2005: 3-21


F. Requejo, “Political liberalism in multinational states: the legitimacy of plural and asymmetrical federalism”, A. Gagnon-J. Tully (eds), Multinational Democracies, Cambridge University Press, 2001


F. Requejo, “National Pluralism, Recognition, Federalism and Secession (or Hegel was a clever guy)” in Alain-G. Gagnon, Soeren Keil and Sean Mueller (eds), Understanding Federalism and Federation, Ashgate, 2015: 157-176



Sessions 9 and 10. Democracy at the beginning of 21st Century





Shakespeare, Henry IV (part 1 and 2)


Shakespeare, Richard III



To choose four among the following readings:



Dahl R, “Can international organizations be democratic?. A skeptic’s view” in Shapiro I-Hacker-Cordón C (eds) Democracy’s Edges, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999


Phillips A, "Must Feminists Give Up on Liberal Democracy?", in Held 1993, chap 4


Parekh B, "The Cultural Particularity of Liberal Democracy", in Held 1993 , chap 7


Resnick Ph, “Twenty-first Century Democracy, or Cleisthenes Revisited”, in Resnick 1997, chap1


Stamos, D, 2008, chap 5 ( Evolution and feminism)


Dworkin-Williams-Nagel-Taylor, “Pluralism”, in R.Dworkin-M.Lilla-R.Silvers, The legacy of Isaiah Berlin, New York Review Books, 2001




7. Finally, some quotations from works of political theory and literature (in different languages):



"lo sabemos igual que lo sabéis vosotros: en el cálculo humano, la justicia solo se plantea entre fuerzas iguales. En caso contrario, los más fuertes hacen todo lo que está en su poder y los débiles ceden"(V, 87)


".. en general los hombres más simples gobiernan mejor la ciudad que las grandes inteligencias. En efecto, suelen estos querer aparecer más sabios que las leyes y triunfar sobre todas y cada una de las propuestas presentadas en público, como si no hubiera otras ocasiones más importantes de mostrar su juicio, y a resultas de tal comportamiento terminan frecuentemente por arruinar a la ciudad" (II, 37)


                                                            Tucídides. Historia de la guerra del Peloponeso



“La tragedia fue una invención griega porque en Grecia el pensamiento era libre. Los hombres pensaban con frecuencia y profundidad en la vida humana, y empezaban a percibir cada vez con mayor claridad que ésta era inseparable del mal y que la injusticia estaba en la naturaleza de las cosas


Los sentimentales somos nosotros. Nosotros, para quienes la poesía y todo el arte no son sino una decoración superficial de la vida, los volvemos un refugio ante un mundo demasiado rudo para enfrentarlo, sentimentalizándolo. Los griegos lo miraron de frente. No fueron, en absoluto, sentimentales. Fue un romano quien dijo que era dulce morir por la patria. Los griegos nunca dijeron que fuera dulce morir por nada. No conocían mentiras vitales”


                                                                        E. Hamilton, El camino de los griegos



"Per tal que la vida dels homes no fos trista i llòbrega, Júpiter els dotà bastant més de passions que de raó: en la proporció de mitja unça a una lliure"


"mai no hi ha hagut prínceps tan perjudicials per a un estat com quan el govern ha recaigut en algun afeccionat a la filosofia o a la literatura"


                                                                                                Erasme, Elogi de la Follia



“Life’s but a walking shadow; a poor player

that struts and frets his hour upon the stage,

and then is heard no more: it is a tale

told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,

signifying nothing


("La vida no és sinó una ombra ambulant, un pobre actor

que es mou enrigidit i consumeix el temps que li toca d’estar a escena

i després ja ningú no el sent més. És un conte

explicat per un idiota, ple de soroll i fúria

que no significa res”)

                                                            W. Shakespeare, Macbeth, V, 5 (trad S. Oliva)



"It is only simple conceptions which take old of a people's mind. A false but clear and precise idea always has more power in the world that one which is true but complex"


  1. Tocqueville, Democracy in America



  • “I always want to know the things one shouldn’t do”

  •  So as not to do them?” asked her aunt

  • “So as to choose”, said Isabel”

                                                                            Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady



    “God protect us from a form of democracy that is too democratic. In other words, a form of democracy that is absolutely democratic. God protect us from a government by the people for the people, and from an equality of individuals that could be implemented literally! In this case the adversaries and detractors of democracy, from Ch. Maurras to B. Mussolini, would be partially right”.


                                                   Antoni Rovira i Virgili, Defensa de la democràcia (1930)

    (trad. Ferran Requejo)




    “Unfortunately, the innocents are always involved in any conflict. Always, everywhere, there is some voice crying from a tower” 


                                                                            Graham Greene, The Quiet American


    “The idea of Western character, of the self as a moral agent, has many sources: Homer and Plato, Aristotle and Sophocles, the Bible and S. Augustine, Dante and Kant, and all you might care to add. Personality, in our sense, is a Shakespearean invention... cause of his perpetual pervasiveness”                                          


                                                    Harold Bloom, Shakespeare. The invention of the Human


“Los hombres quieren demasiadas cosas: quieren lo que es lógicamente imposible. Este es el motivo de que símbolos sagrados como ‘libertad’ o ‘democracia’ y ‘derecho’ de autogobierno cubran tal cantidad de ideales que están en conflicto los unos con los otros. Más vale darse cuenta de esto. Las cosas son lo que son, el status es una cosa, la libertad es otra, el reconocimiento no es igual a la no interferencia. Al final, todos pagamos demasiado caro nuestro deseo de desviar la mirada de dichas verdades, de ignorar estas distinciones en nuestro intento de acuñar términos que cubran todo lo que deseamos, en definitiva, por nuestro deseo de ser engañados”


                                                                                   I. Berlin, La búsqueda del ‘status’


"Mi identidad es lo que hace que yo no sea idéntico a ninguna otra persona"


"A mi entender, la tiranía de la mayoría no es mejor, desde el punto de vista moral, que la de la minoría"


                                                                        Amin Maalouf, Identidades asesinas


"Ara comprenc que l'encís real de la vida intel·lectual es la seva facilitat ... Viure és molt més difícil que el sànscrit, la química i l'economia.... I és per això (entre altres motius) que hi ha tanta demanda d'alta educació. L'afluència cap als llibres i les universitats és com l'afluència cap els cafès i les tavernes. Les gents necessiten ofegar llur comprensió de les dificultats de viure convenientment en aquest grotesc món contemporani, necessiten oblidar llur deplorable ineficiència com a artistes de la vida ... Els llibres i les conferències serveixen millor per a ofegar les penes que no pas la beguda i la fornicació; car no deixen mal de cap, ni cap d'aquelles desesperadores sensacions de post coitum, triste. ... He comprès, també, que la recerca de la veritat no és sinó un nom més refinat per a la diversió favorita de l'intel·lectual, de posar simples i, per tant, falses abstraccions, al lloc de les vivents complicacions de la realitat".


                                                                                                A.Huxley. Contrapunt



Teaching Methods

a)Teaching Language:


English is the official language in this Master programme. Papers may be also written in Catalan, Spanish, Italian or French.



b) Basic structure of each session:


  1. Lecture (Ferran Requejo) (50-55 min)


Break (15 min)


  1. Workshop (Chairperson, presenters, discussant, group)


2.1) Presentation of the two compulsory reading texts (2 students, 20 min)


2.2) Presentation of Ancient Greek and Shakespeare’s tragedies (2 students, 20 minutes)


            Comments, suggestions, questions (10 min)


2.3) Critical comments of the two presentations by the discussant (1 student, 10 min)


2.4) Open discussion and conclusions led by the chairperson (1 student, 45 min)


2.5) Presentation of the readings for the next session (Ferran Requejo)(5 min)





The following criteria will be taken into account for the final assessment:




  1. Presentations and comments of the discussants +

    minimum of 6 summaries of the compulsory readings for the sessions (two for Part One and four for Part Two



  2. Presentations (power point): political analysis of Ancient Greek and Shakespeare’s tragedies (Antigone, Medea, Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Macbeth, King Lear, The Merchant of Venice, Henry IV (1st+2nd part), Richard III)



  3. Participation during the sessions (including the chairperson). Credit will be given for the quality of comments



  4. Students should hand in a Paper (max. 6000 words)



Bibliography and information resources

(For analytical references on Shakespeare’s works and Shakespeare and Politics, see



Amoretti U - Bermeo N (eds), Federalism, Unitarism and Territorial Cleavages, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004


Berlin I, The Power of Ideas, Chatto&Windus, London, 2000 (El poder de las Ideas, Madrid, Espasa, 2000)


Berlin, I, The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press, 1998


Berlin I, Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford University Press 1978 (Cuatro ensayos sobre la libertad, Alianza, Madrid 1988)


Burgess, M, Comparative Federalism. Theory and Practice. London, Routledge, 2006.


Castiñeira, A (dir) El liberalisme i els seus crítics, Proa, Barcelona 1996


Dahl R, Democracy and its critics, Yale University Press, 1989 (La Democracia y sus Críticos, Paidós, Barcelona 1992)


De Waal, F, Our Inner Ape, 2005 (El mono que llevamos dentro, Tusquets, Barcelona, 2007)


De Waal, F, Chimpanzees Politics: Power and Sex among Apes, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1982, 1998 (La política de los chimpancés, Alianza, Madrid 1993)


Dworkin R – Lilla M – Silvers R (eds), The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin, New York Review Books, 2001


Elazar D, Exploring Federalism, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 1987


Fossas E - Requejo F (eds), Asimetría Federal y Estado Plurinacional, El debate sobre la acomodación de la diversidad en Canadá, Bélgica y España, Trotta, Madrid 1999


Gagnon A - Tully J (eds), Multinational Democracies, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2001


Gagnon A - Guibernau M - Rocher F (eds), The Conditions of Diversity in Multinational Democracies, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Montréal 2003


Hansen, M.H, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes , Blackwell,1991


Held, D Models of democracy, Stanford University Press, 1987 (Modelos de democracia, Alianza, Madrid 1992)


Held, D, Prospects for Democracy ,  Polity, 1993


Karmis, D–Norman, W (eds), Theories of Federalism. A Reader, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005


Kymlicka W – Norman W (eds), Citizenship in Diverse Societies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000


Lijphart, A, Patterns of Democracy, Yale University Press 1999 (Modelos de Democracia, Ariel, Barcelona 2000)


Maiz R – Requejo F (eds), Democracy, Nationalism and Multiculturalism, Routledge, London-New York 2005


Mulhall S & Swift A, Liberals and Communitarians, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992


Norman, W, Negotiating Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006


Parekh B, Rethinking Multiculturalism, Macmillan Press, 2000


Pettit P, Republicanism. A History of Freedom and Government, Oxford University Press, 1997 (Republicanismo. Una teoría sobre la libertad y el gobierno, Barcelona, Paidós, 1999)


Pocock, J.G.A, The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republic Tradition, Princeton, Princeton University Press 1975 (El momento maquiavélico, Madrid, Tecnos 2002)


Pomeroy S.B – Burnstein S.M.- Donlan W – Roberts J.T, Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999, chaps 5-8 (La Antigua Grecia, Crítica Barcelona 2001)


Preuss U - Requejo F (eds), European Citizenship, Multiculturalism and the State, Baden-Baden, Nomos 1998


Rawls J, A Theory of Justice, Harvard College, 1971 (Teoría de la Justicia, F.C.E, México 1978)


Rawls J, Political Liberalism, New York, Columbia University Press, 1993 (El Liberalismo Político, Crítica, Barcelona 1996)


Rawls J, Justice as Fairness. A Restatement (Erin Nelly edit), Harvard University Press, Cambridge-London 2001 (La Justicia como equidad. Una reformulación, Paidós, Barcelona-Buenos Aires-México 2002)


Requejo, F - Caminal, M (eds), Federalism, Plurinationality and Democratic Constitutionalism: Theory and cases, Routledge, London-New York 2012


Requejo F - Nagel K.J (eds), Federalism beyond Federations: Resymmetrization processes in Europe. A comparative analysis of 10 cases, Ashgate 2011 (forthcoming)


Requejo F – Caminal M (eds), Political Liberalism and Multinational Democracies, Routledge, London-New York, 2011


Requejo, F – Gonzalo, E, Desigualtats en democràcia. Les teories de la justícia socio-econòmica en el segle XXI, Eumo, Vic 2009


Requejo, F., Las democracias. Democracia antigua, democracia liberal y Estado del Bienestar,  Ariel, Barcelona 2008


Requejo, F, Multinational Federalism and Value Pluralism, Routledge, London-New York 2005

(Federalismo Plurinacional y Pluralismo de Valores, CEPC, Madrid 2007; Fédéralisme Multinacional et Pluralisme de valeurs, Peter Lang, Bruxelles 2009)


Resnick P, Twenty-first Century Democracy, Montréal, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997


Sartori, G, The Theory of Democracy Revisited, Chatham House Publishers, 1987 (Teoría de la democracia, 2 vols, Alianza, Madrid 1988)


Shapiro I - Hacker-Cordón C (eds) Democracy’s Edges, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999


Skinner, Q, Liberty before Liberalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1998


Stamos D, Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, and Other Matters, Blackwell 2008


Tamir Y, Liberal Nationalism, New Jersey, Princeton University Press 1993


Taylor, Ch. 2001, «Plurality of Goods», in Dworkin-Lilla-Taylor, The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin, Nova York: New York Review Books.


Taylor, Ch., 1997, La Liberté des Modernes, Paris, PUF


Taylor Ch, The Sources of the Self, Cambridge, Harvard University Press 1989


Taylor, Ch, Multiculturalism and the “The Politics of Recognition”, New Jersey, Princeton University Press 1992


Tully J, Strange Multiplicity. Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1994


Walzer M, Thick and Thin, Notre Dame-London, University of Notre Dame Press 1994


Watts R, Comparing Federal Systems, 2nd ed, Montreal&Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press 1999